University of Virginia, J.D., 1982
Yale University, B.A., History, 1978

Admitted to:

Missouri Bar, 1982
Federal District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri, 1986
Federal Court of Appeals for the Eight Circuit, 1999
Supreme Court of the United States, 2000

Professional Associations:

NPAP (National Police Accountability Project)
Bar Association of Metropolitan St.Louis
The Federalist Society
Missouri Bar Association